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Mark DEP5 as frozen.
1 [[!meta title="DEP-5: Machine-readable debian/copyright"]]
2
3 Title: Machine-readable debian/copyright
4 DEP: 5
5 State: CANDIDATE (frozen, about to be ACCEPTED)
6 Date: 2011-04-10
7 Drivers: Steve Langasek <vorlon@debian.org>,
8 Lars Wirzenius <liw@liw.fi>
9 URL: http://dep.debian.net/deps/dep5
10 License:
11 Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
12 are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
13 notice and this notice are preserved.
14 Abstract:
15 Establish a standard, machine-readable format for debian/copyright
16 files within packages, to facilitate automated checking and
17 reporting of licenses for packages and sets of packages.
18
19 The spec has now been included in the debian-policy package,
20 and that is now the official version. This version will no longer
21 be change. Only fixes for serious bugs will be accepted at all,
22 until transfer to the policy package is final, and after that
23 the normal policy process will be used for any further changes.
24
25 [[!toc ]]
26
27 # Introduction
28
29 This is a proposal to make `debian/copyright` machine-interpretable.
30 This file is one of the most important files in Debian packaging, yet
31 there is currently no standard format defined for it and its contents
32 vary tremendously across packages, making it difficult to automatically
33 extract licensing information.
34
35 This is not a proposal to change the policy in the short term. In
36 particular, nothing in this proposal supersedes or modifies any of the
37 requirements specified in Debian Policy regarding the appropriate detail or
38 granularity to use when documenting copyright and license status in
39 `debian/copyright`.
40
41 # Rationale
42
43 The diversity of free software licenses means that Debian needs to care
44 not only about the freeness of a given work, but also its license's
45 compatibility with the other parts of Debian it uses.
46
47 The arrival of the GPL version 3, its incompatibility with version 2,
48 and our inability to spot the software where the incompatibility might
49 be problematic is one prominent occurrence of this limitation.
50
51 There are earlier precedents, also. One is the GPL/OpenSSL
52 incompatibility. Apart from grepping `debian/copyright`, which is
53 prone to numerous false positives (packaging under the GPL but software
54 under another license) or negatives (GPL software but with an "OpenSSL
55 special exception" dual licensing form), there is no reliable way to
56 know which software in Debian might be problematic.
57
58 And there is more to come. There are issues with shipping GPLv2-only
59 software with a CDDL operating system such as Nexenta. The GPL version 3
60 solves this issue, but not all GPL software can switch to it and we have
61 no way to know how much of Debian should be stripped from such a system.
62
63 A user might want to have a way to avoid software with certain licenses
64 they have a problem with, even if the licenses are DFSG-free. For
65 example, the Affero GPL.
66
67 # Acknowledgements
68
69 Many people have worked on this specification over the years.
70 The following alphabetical list is incomplete,
71 please suggest missing people:
72 Russ Allbery,
73 Ben Finney,
74 Sam Hocevar,
75 Steve Langasek,
76 Charles Plessy,
77 Noah Slater,
78 Jonas Smedegaard,
79 Lars Wirzenius.
80
81 # File syntax
82
83 The `debian/copyright` file must be machine-interpretable, yet
84 human-readable, while communicating all mandated upstream information,
85 copyright notices and licensing details.
86
87 The syntax of the file is the same as for other Debian control files,
88 as specified in section 5.1 of the Debian Policy Manual.
89 See
90 <http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html#s-controlsyntax>
91 for details.
92 Extra fields can be added to any paragraph.
93 No prefixing is necessary or desired, but please avoid names similar
94 to standard ones so that mistakes are easier to catch.
95 Future versions of the `debian/copyright`
96 specification will attempt to avoid conflicting specifications
97 for widely used extra fields.
98
99 There are four kinds values for fields. Each field specifies which
100 kind is allowed.
101
102 * Single-line values.
103 * White space separated lists.
104 * Line based lists.
105 * Text formatted like package long descriptions.
106
107 A single-line value means that the whole value of a field must fit on
108 a single line. For example, the `Format` field has a single line value
109 specifying the version of the machine-readable format that is used.
110
111 A white space separated list means that the field value may be on one
112 line or many, but values in the list are separated by one or more
113 white space characters (including space, TAB, and newline). For
114 example, the `Files` field has a list of filename patterns.
115
116 Another kind of list value has one value per line. For example,
117 `Copyright` can list many copyright statements, one per line.
118
119 Formatted text fields use the same rules as the long description in
120 a package's `Description` field, possibly also using the first
121 line as a synopsis, like `Description` uses it for the
122 short description.
123 See section 5.6.13, "Description", at
124 <http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html#s-f-Description>
125 for details.
126 For example, `Disclaimer` has no special first line, whereas
127 `License` does.
128
129 # Paragraphs
130
131 There are three kinds of paragraphs: the first one is called
132 the "header paragraph". Every other paragraph is either a "Files"
133 paragraph or a stand-alone license paragraph.
134 This is similar to source and binary package paragraphs
135 in `debian/control` files.
136
137 ## Header paragraph (Once)
138
139 * **`Format`**
140 * Required
141 * Syntax: single line
142 * URI of the format specification, such as:
143 * http://svn.debian.org/wsvn/dep/web/deps/dep5.mdwn?op=file&rev=REVISION
144
145 * **`Upstream-Name`**
146 * Optional
147 * Syntax: single line
148 * The name upstream uses for the software.
149
150 * **`Upstream-Contact`**
151 * Optional
152 * Syntax: line based list
153 * The preferred address(es) to reach
154 the upstream project. May be free-form text, but by convention
155 will usually be written as a list of RFC5322 addresses or URIs.
156
157 * **`Source`**
158 * Optional
159 * Syntax: formatted text, no synopsis
160 * An explanation from where the upstream source came from.
161 Typically this would be a URL, but it might be a free-form explanation.
162 The [Debian Policy, 12.5](http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-docs.html#s-copyrightfile)
163 requires this information unless there are no upstream sources,
164 which is mainly the case for native Debian packages. If the upstream
165 source has been modified to remove non-free parts, that should be
166 explained in this field.
167
168 * **`Disclaimer`**
169 * Optional
170 * Syntax: formatted text, no synopsis
171 * This field can be
172 used in the case of non-free and contrib packages (see [Policy
173 12.5](
174 http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-docs.html#s-copyrightfile))
175
176 * **`Comment`**
177 * Optional
178 * Syntax: formatted text, no synopsis
179 * Description: This field can provide additional information. For
180 example, it might quote an e-mail from upstream
181 justifying why the license is acceptable to the main archive, or
182 an explanation of how this version of the package has been forked
183 from a version known to be DFSG-free, even though the current
184 upstream version is not.
185
186 * **`Copyright`**
187 * Optional.
188 * Syntax: line based list
189 * In the header paragraph (no `Files` specification), this field
190 gives the copyright information for the package as a whole, which
191 may be different or simplified from a combination of all the
192 per-file copyright information. See also `Copyright` below in
193 the `Files paragraph` section.
194
195 * **`License`**
196 * Optional
197 * Syntax: formatted text, with synopsis
198 * In the header paragraph (no `Files` specification), this field
199 gives the license information for the package as a whole, which
200 may be different or simplified from a combination of all the
201 per-file license information. See also `License` below in
202 the `Files paragraph` section.
203
204 The `Copyright` and `License` fields in the _header paragraph_ may complement
205 but do not replace the _files paragraphs_. They can be used to summarise the
206 contributions and redistribution terms for the whole package, for instance when
207 a work combines a permissive and a copyleft license, or to document a
208 _compilation copyright_ and license. It is possible to use only License
209 in the header paragraph, but Copyright alone makes no sense.
210
211 Example:
212
213 Format: <VERSIONED_FORMAT_URL>
214 Upstream-Name: SOFTware
215 Upstream-Contact: John Doe <john.doe@example.com>
216 Source: http://www.example.com/software/project
217
218 ## Files paragraph (Repeatable)
219
220 The declaration of copyright and license for files is done in one or more
221 paragraphs. In the simplest case, a single paragraph can be used which
222 applies to all files and lists all applicable copyrights and licenses.
223
224 * **`Files`**
225 * Required (not in header paragraph).
226 * Syntax: white space separated list
227 * List of patterns indicating files covered by the license
228 and copyright specified in this paragraph. See below for details.
229
230 * **`Copyright`**
231 * Required
232 * Syntax: line based list
233 * One or more free-form copyright statement(s), one per line,
234 that apply to the files matched by the above pattern.
235 If a work has no copyright holder (i.e., it is in the public
236 domain), that information should be recorded here.
237
238 The Copyright field collects all relevant copyright notices for the
239 files of this paragraph. Not all copyright notices may apply to every
240 individual file, and years of publication for one copyright holder may
241 be gathered together. For example, if file A has:
242
243 Copyright 2008 John Smith
244 Copyright 2009 Angela Watts
245
246 and file B has:
247
248 Copyright 2010 Angela Watts
249
250 the Copyright field for a stanza covering both file A and file B need
251 contain only:
252
253 Copyright 2008 John Smith
254 Copyright 2009, 2010 Angela Watts
255
256 The Copyright field may contain the original copyright statement
257 copied exactly (including the word "Copyright"), or it can
258 shorten the text, as long as it does not sacrifice information.
259 Examples in this specification use both forms.
260
261 * **`License`**
262 * Licensing terms for the files listed in **`Files`** field for this paragraph
263 * Required
264 * Syntax: formatted text, with synopsis
265 * First line: an abbreviated name for the license, or expression giving
266 alternatives (see *Short names* section for a list of standard
267 abbreviations). If there are licenses present
268 in the package without a standard short name, an arbitrary short
269 name may be assigned for these licenses. These arbitrary names
270 are only guaranteed to be unique within a single copyright file.
271 * Remaining lines: if left blank here, the file **must** include
272 a stand-alone **`License`** paragraph matching each license short
273 name listed on the first line (see the *Standalone License Paragraph*
274 section). Otherwise, this field should either include the full text
275 of the license(s) or include a pointer to the license file under
276 `/usr/share/common-licenses`. This field should include all text
277 needed in order to fulfill both Debian Policy's requirement for
278 including a copy of the software's distribution license
279 (<a href="http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-docs.html#s-copyrightfile">§12.5</a>),
280 and any license requirements to include warranty disclaimers or
281 other notices with the binary package.
282
283 * **`Comment`**
284 * Same as in the header paragraph.
285
286 Filename patterns in the `Files` field are specified using a
287 simplified shell glob syntax. Patterns are separated by
288 white space.
289
290 * Only the wildcards `*` and `?` apply; the former matches any number
291 of characters (including none), the latter a single character. Both
292 match a slash ("`/`") and a leading dot.
293 * The backslash ("`\\`") is used to remove the magic from the next
294 character; see table below.
295 * Patterns match pathnames that start at the root of the source tree.
296 Thus, "`Makefile.in`" matches only the file at the root of the tree,
297 but "`*/Makefile.in`" matches at any depth.
298
299 Backslash escape sequences:
300
301 \* match star (asterisk)
302 \? match question mark
303 \\ match backslash
304
305 Any other character following a backslash is an error.
306
307 Multiple `Files` paragraphs are allowed. The last paragraph that
308 matches a particular file applies to it.
309
310 Exclusions are done by having multiple `Files` paragraphs.
311
312 Example:
313
314 Files: *
315 Copyright: 1975-2010 Ulla Upstream
316 License: GPL-2+
317
318 Files: debian/*
319 Copyright: 2010 Daniela Debianizer
320 License: GPL-2+
321
322 Files: debian/patches/fancy-feature
323 Copyright: 2010 Daniela Debianizer
324 License: GPL-3+
325
326 Files: */*.1
327 Copyright: 2010 Manuela Manpager
328 License: GPL-2+
329
330 In this example, all files are copyright by the upstream and licensed
331 under the GPL, version 2 or later, with three exceptions.
332 All the Debian packaging files are copyright by the packager,
333 and further one specific file providing a new feature is licensed
334 differently. Finally, there are some manual pages added to the package,
335 written by a third person.
336
337 ## Standalone License Paragraph (Optional, Repeatable)
338
339 Where a set of files are dual (tri, etc) licensed, or when the same license
340 occurs multiple times, you can use a single line **`License`** field and
341 standalone **`License`** paragraphs to expand the license short names.
342
343 Example 1 (tri-licensed files).
344
345 Files: src/js/editline/*
346 Copyright: 1993, John Doe
347 1993, Joe Average
348 License: MPL-1.1 or GPL-2 or LGPL-2.1
349
350 License: MPL-1.1
351 [LICENSE TEXT]
352
353 License: GPL-2
354 [LICENSE TEXT]
355
356 License: LGPL-2.1
357 [LICENSE TEXT]
358
359
360 Example 2 (recurrent license).
361
362 Files: src/js/editline/*
363 Copyright: 1993, John Doe
364 1993, Joe Average
365 License: MPL-1.1
366
367 Files: src/js/fdlibm/*
368 Copyright: 1993, J-Random Corporation
369 License: MPL-1.1
370
371 License: MPL-1.1
372 [LICENSE TEXT]
373
374 # License specifications
375
376 ## Short name
377
378 Much of the value of a machine-parseable copyright file lies in being able to
379 correlate the licenses of multiple pieces of software. To that end, this
380 spec defines standard short names for a number of commonly used licenses,
381 which can be used in the first line of a "`License`" field.
382
383 These short names have the specified meanings across all uses of this file
384 format, and *must not* be used to refer to any other licenses. Parsers may
385 thus rely on these short names referring to the same licenses wherever they
386 occur, without needing to parse or compare the full license text.
387
388 From time to time, licenses may be added to or removed from the list of
389 standard short names. Such changes in the list of short names will always
390 be accompanied by changes to the recommended `Format` value.
391 Implementors who are parsing copyright files should take care not to assume
392 anything about the meaning of license short names for unknown
393 `Format` versions.
394
395 Use of a standard short name does not override the Debian Policy requirement
396 to include the full license text in `debian/copyright`, nor any requirements
397 in the license of the work regarding reproduction of legal notices. This
398 information must still be included in the `License` field, either in a
399 stand-alone license paragraph or in the relevant files paragraph.
400
401 For licenses which have multiple versions in use, the version number is
402 added, using a dash as a separator. If omitted, the lowest version number is
403 implied. When the license grant permits using the terms of any later version
404 of that license, the short name is finished with a plus sign.
405 For SPDX compatibility, trailing "dot-zeroes" are considered to be equal
406 to plainer version (e.g., "2.0.0" is considered equal to "2.0" and "2").
407
408 Currently, the full text of the licenses is only available in the
409 [working version the SPDX license list](http://spdx.org/wiki/working-version-license-list).
410
411
412 [[!table data="""
413 **keyword** | **meaning**
414 `public-domain` | No license required for any purpose; the work is not subject to copyright in any jurisdiction.
415 `Apache` | Apache license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/ASL-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/ASL-2.0).
416 `Artistic` | Artistic license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/Artistic-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/Artistic-2.0).
417 `BSD-2-clause` | Berkeley software distribution license, [2-clause version](http://spdx.org/licenses/BSD-2-Clause).
418 `BSD-3-clause` | Berkeley software distribution license, [3-clause version](http://spdx.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause).
419 `BSD-4-clause` | Berkeley software distribution license, [4-clause version](http://spdx.org/licenses/BSD-4-Clause).
420 `ISC` | [Internet Software Consortium](http://spdx.org/licenses/ISC)'s license, sometimes also known as the OpenBSD License.
421 `CC-BY` | Creative Commons Attribution license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-3.0).
422 `CC-BY-SA` | Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-SA-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-SA-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-SA-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-SA-3.0).
423 `CC-BY-ND` | Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-ND-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-ND-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-ND-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-ND-3.0).
424 `CC-BY-NC` | Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-3.0).
425 `CC-BY-NC-SA` | Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-SA-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-SA-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-SA-3.0).
426 `CC-BY-NC-ND` | Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-ND-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0), [2.5](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-ND-2.5), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/CC-BY-NC-ND-3.0).
427 `CC0` | Creative Commons [Universal waiver](http://creativecommons.org/license/zero/)
428 `CDDL` | [Common Development and Distribution License](http://spdx.org/licenses/CDDL).
429 `CPL` | [IBM Common Public License](http://spdx.org/licenses/CPL-1.0).
430 `EFL` | The Eiffel Forum License [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/EPL-1.0).
431 `Expat` | The [Expat](http://www.jclark.com/xml/copying.txt) license
432 `GPL` | GNU General Public License [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/GPL-1.0) [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/GPL-2.0) [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/GPL-3.0).
433 `LGPL` | GNU Lesser General Public License [2.1](http://spdx.org/licenses/LGPL-2.1), [3.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/LGPL-3.0) or GNU Library General Public License [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/LGPL-1.0) [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/LGPL-2.0).
434 `GFDL` | [GNU Free Documentation License](http://spdx.org/licenses/FDL-1.0).
435 `GFDL-NIV` | GNU Free Documentation License, with no invariant sections
436 `LPPL` | [LaTeX Project Public License](http://www.latex-project.org/lppl/) [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/LPPL-1.0), [1.1](http://spdx.org/licenses/LPPL-1.1), [1.2](http://spdx.org/licenses/LPPL-1.2), [1.3c](http://spdx.org/licenses/LPPL-1.3c),
437 `MPL` | Mozilla Public License [1.1](http://spdx.org/licenses/MPL-1.1).
438 `Perl` | [Perl](http://dev.perl.org/licenses/) license (use "GPL-1+ or Artistic-1" instead)
439 `Python-CNRI` | [Python license](http://spdx.org/licenses/Python-CNRI).
440 `QPL` | Q Public License [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/QPL-1.0).
441 `W3C` | [W3C Software License](http://spdx.org/licenses/W3C). For more information, consult the [W3C Intellectual Rights FAQ](http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/IPR-FAQ-20000620).
442 `Zlib` | [zlib/libpng license](http://spdx.org/licenses/Zlib).
443 `Zope` | Zope Public License [1.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/ZPL-1.0), [2.0](http://spdx.org/licenses/ZPL-2.0), [2.1](http://spdx.org/licenses/ZPL-2.1).
444 """]]
445
446 There are [many versions of the MIT
447 license](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_License#Various_versions).
448 Please use Expat instead, when it matches.
449
450 Exceptions and clarifications are signaled in plain text, by appending
451 "with '''keywords''' exception" to the short name. This document provides a
452 list of keywords that refer to the most frequent exceptions.
453
454 The GPL "`Font`" exception refers to the text added to the
455 license notice of each file as specified at [How does the GPL apply to
456 fonts?](http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#FontException). The precise
457 text corresponding to this exception is:
458
459 > As a special exception, if you create a document which uses this font,
460 > and embed this font or unaltered portions of this font into the
461 > document, this font does not by itself cause the resulting document to
462 > be covered by the GNU General Public License. This exception does not
463 > however invalidate any other reasons why the document might be covered
464 > by the GNU General Public License. If you modify this font, you may
465 > extend this exception to your version of the font, but you are not
466 > obligated to do so. If you do not wish to do so, delete this exception
467 > statement from your version.
468
469 The GPL "`OpenSSL`" exception gives permission to link GPL-licensed
470 code with the OpenSSL library, which contains GPL-incompatible clauses.
471 For more information, see ["The -OpenSSL License and The
472 GPL"](http://www.gnome.org/~markmc/openssl-and-the-gpl.html) by Mark
473 McLoughlin and the message ["middleman software license conflicts with
474 OpenSSL"](http://lists.debian.org/debian-legal/2004/05/msg00595.html)
475 by Mark McLoughlin on the `debian-legal` mailing list. The text corresponding
476 to this exception is:
477
478 > In addition, as a special exception, the copyright holders give
479 > permission to link the code of portions of this program with the
480 > OpenSSL library under certain conditions as described in each
481 > individual source file, and distribute linked combinations including
482 > the two.
483
484 > You must obey the GNU General Public License in all respects for all
485 > of the code used other than OpenSSL. If you modify file(s) with this
486 > exception, you may extend this exception to your version of the
487 > file(s), but you are not obligated to do so. If you do not wish to do
488 > so, delete this exception statement from your version. If you delete
489 > this exception statement from all source files in the program, then
490 > also delete it here.
491
492
493 ### Public domain
494
495 The `License` short name `public-domain` does not refer to a set of
496 license terms. There are some works which are not subject to copyright
497 in any jurisdiction and therefore no license is required for any
498 purpose covered by copyright law. This short name is an explicit
499 declaration that the associated files are “in the public domain”.
500
501 Widespread misunderstanding about copyright in general, and the public
502 domain in particular, results in the common assertion that a work is
503 in the public domain when this is partly or wholly untrue for that
504 work. The
505 [Wikipedia article on public domain](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain)
506 is a useful reference for this subject.
507
508 When the `License` field in a paragraph has the short name
509 `public-domain`, the remaining lines of the field **must** explain
510 exactly what exemption the corresponding files for that paragraph have
511 from default copyright restrictions.
512
513
514 ## Syntax
515
516 License names are case-insensitive, and may not contain spaces.
517
518 In case of multi-licensing, the license short names are separated by `or`
519 when the user can chose between different licenses, and by `and` when use
520 of the work must simultaneously comply with the terms of multiple licenses.
521
522 For instance, this is a simple, "GPL version 2 or later" field:
523
524 License: GPL-2+
525
526 This is a dual-licensed GPL/Artistic work such as Perl:
527
528 License: GPL-1+ or Artistic
529
530 This is for a file that has both GPL and classic BSD code in it:
531
532 License: GPL-2+ and BSD
533
534 For the most complex cases, the comma is used to disambiguate the priority of
535 `or`s and `and`s: `and` has the priority over `or`, unless preceded by a comma.
536 For instance:
537
538 `A or B and C` means `A or (B and C)`.
539 `A or B, and C` means `(A or B), and C`.
540
541 This is for a file that has Perl code and classic BSD code in it:
542
543 License: GPL-2+ or Artistic-2.0, and BSD
544
545 A GPL-2+ work with the OpenSSL exception is in effect a dual-licensed
546 work that can be redistributed either under the GPL-2+, or under the
547 GPL-2+ with the OpenSSL exception. It is thus expressed as
548 `GPL-2+ with OpenSSL exception`:
549
550 License: GPL-2+ with OpenSSL exception
551 This program is free software; you can redistribute it
552 and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
553 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
554 version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
555 version.
556 .
557 In addition, as a special exception, the author of this
558 program gives permission to link the code of its
559 release with the OpenSSL project's "OpenSSL" library (or
560 with modified versions of it that use the same license as
561 the "OpenSSL" library), and distribute the linked
562 executables. You must obey the GNU General Public
563 License in all respects for all of the code used other
564 than "OpenSSL". If you modify this file, you may extend
565 this exception to your version of the file, but you are
566 not obligated to do so. If you do not wish to do so,
567 delete this exception statement from your version.
568 .
569 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
570 useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
571 warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
572 PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
573 details.
574 .
575 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
576 License along with this package; if not, write to the Free
577 Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
578 Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
579 .
580 On Debian systems, the full text of the GNU General Public
581 License version 2 can be found in the file
582 `/usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-2'.
583
584 ## SPDX
585
586 [SPDX](http://spdx.org/) is an attempt to standardize a format
587 for communicating the components, licenses and copyrights
588 associated with a software package. It and the machine-readable
589 `debian/copyright` format attempt to be somewhat compatible.
590 However, the two formats have different aims, and so the formats
591 are different.
592 The [DEP5 wiki page](http://wiki.debian.org/Proposals/CopyrightFormat)
593 will be used to track the differences.
594
595
596 # Examples
597
598 ## Simple
599
600 A possible `copyright` file for the program 'X Solitaire' distributed in the
601 Debian source package `xsol`:
602
603 Format: <VERSIONED_FORMAT_URL>
604 Upstream-Name: X Solitaire
605 Source: ftp://ftp.example.com/pub/games
606
607 Files: *
608 Copyright: Copyright 1998 John Doe <jdoe@example.com>
609 License: GPL-2+
610 This program is free software; you can redistribute it
611 and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
612 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
613 version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
614 version.
615 .
616 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
617 useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
618 warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
619 PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
620 details.
621 .
622 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
623 License along with this package; if not, write to the Free
624 Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
625 Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
626 .
627 On Debian systems, the full text of the GNU General Public
628 License version 2 can be found in the file
629 `/usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-2'.
630
631 Files: debian/*
632 Copyright: Copyright 1998 Jane Smith <jsmith@example.net>
633 License:
634 [LICENSE TEXT]
635
636 ## Complex
637
638 A possible `copyright` file for the program 'Planet Venus', distributed in the
639 Debian source package `planet-venus`:
640
641 Format: <VERSIONED_FORMAT_URL>
642 Upstream-Name: Planet Venus
643 Upstream-Contact: John Doe <jdoe@example.com>
644 Source: http://www.example.com/code/venus
645
646 Files: *
647 Copyright: 2008, John Doe <jdoe@example.com>
648 2007, Jane Smith <jsmith@example.org>
649 2007, Joe Average <joe@example.org>
650 2007, J. Random User <jr@users.example.com>
651 License: PSF-2
652 [LICENSE TEXT]
653
654 Files: debian/*
655 Copyright: 2008, Dan Developer <dan@debian.example.com>
656 License:
657 Copying and distribution of this package, with or without
658 modification, are permitted in any medium without royalty
659 provided the copyright notice and this notice are
660 preserved.
661
662 Files: debian/patches/theme-diveintomark.patch
663 Copyright: 2008, Joe Hacker <hack@example.org>
664 License: GPL-2+
665 [LICENSE TEXT]
666
667 Files: planet/vendor/compat_logging/*
668 Copyright: 2002, Mark Smith <msmith@example.org>
669 License: MIT
670 [LICENSE TEXT]
671
672 Files: planet/vendor/httplib2/*
673 Copyright: 2006, John Brown <brown@example.org>
674 License: MIT2
675 Unspecified MIT style license.
676
677 Files: planet/vendor/feedparser.py
678 Copyright: 2007, Mike Smith <mike@example.org>
679 License: PSF-2
680 [LICENSE TEXT]
681
682 Files: planet/vendor/htmltmpl.py
683 Copyright: 2004, Thomas Brown <coder@example.org>
684 License: GPL-2+
685 This program is free software; you can redistribute it
686 and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
687 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
688 version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
689 version.
690 .
691 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
692 useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
693 warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
694 PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
695 details.
696 .
697 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
698 License along with this package; if not, write to the Free
699 Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
700 Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
701 .
702 On Debian systems, the full text of the GNU General Public
703 License version 2 can be found in the file
704 `/usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-2'.

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